Digital Image Processing | Thesis Work Chandigarh

Digital Image Processing

Digital Image Processing (DIP) deals with the objective / subjective manipulation of digital data of images with the aid of a digital computer. It aims at maximizing the clarity and sharpness of digital images in order to make them more suitable for higher order processing such as segmentation, classification and analysis. The digital image sources range from satellites, airborne scanner, airborne solid-state

Camera, scanning micro-densitometer to high-resolution video camera. Digital image processing algorithms are devised for two principal application areas:

  • Improvement of pictorial information for human interpretation
  • Processing of scene data for autonomous machine perception

This research work concentrates on the former area in which the image should be enhanced in order to increase the degree of interpretability.

Digital Image:

Any analog image which is represented as a function of continuous space can be digitized as a discrete function of spatial coordinates and amplitude. The process of digitization involves two major phases namely sampling and quantization. Sampling is the process of digitizing the co-ordinates of a continuous image by selecting the samples at uniform intervals in order to represent it as a two dimensional array of size N × M. The degree of approximation of digitization of coordinates from the continuous image is directly proportional to the sampling interval. Quantization refers to digitizing the amplitude of the analog image at the sampled co-ordinates. The dynamic range of intensities chosen for quantization should be sufficiently larger enough to depict the fine details in the digitized image. A digital image in two dimensional discrete space is generally described as f(x, y) of size N × M, where f is the amplitude at the spatial coordinates (x, y) and N and M are the number of rows and columns respectively (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Digital Image

Elements of Digital Image Processing :

Images are captured either in digital or analog form. Any analog image should necessarily be transformed into digital form to make it suitable for digital image processing. Most of the image acquisition devices such as digital camera and frame grabbers are capable of capturing the objects in digital form itself. However, the analog images obtained by CCD (Charge Coupled Device) cameras are to be suitably digitized. Moreover, this stage also covers the geometrical transformation like scaling, translation, rotation, reflection and projection. The elements of digital image processing are primarily categorized as:

i) Image Acquisition
ii) Image Restoration
iii) Image Enhancement
iv) Image Compression
v) Morphological Processing
vi) Image Segmentation
vii) Image Representation
viii) Image Description
ix) Colour Image Processing

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