Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) is a type of wireless networking technology, created by establishing a network of vehicles with road side units, used for communication purpose on highways or in urban environments to increase safety and comfort for vehicles as shown in Figure. VANETs act as a crucial component of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) and VANETs are an upcoming high-tech technology, combination of Ad-Hoc network, wireless LAN, and cellular technology to attain intelligent vehicle Communication system. VANETs are identical to Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs). VANETS can be distinguishing from MANETs by their hybrid architecture. In simple words we can say VANET is communication between vehicles. Ad hoc network is described as the networks which do not depend on any of the preceding framework like routers in connection oriented network and access points in transmission networks. The VANETs architecture mainly comprises of the On board units [OBU] equipped in vehicles, Road side units [RSU] deployed on roadside junctions, and centralized stations called base station Units [BSU], and the vehicles. Vehicles in then network interact with each other through OBU via messages. Similarly, OBU can directly interact with RSU and BSU.
Vehicles are the mobile machines used for transportation. Due to the increase in human population there is also an increase in the population of vehicles. Due to this reason there is an increase in congestion of vehicles. Vehicular congestion occurs if the vehicles require space more than the available space. Increase in vehicles not only cause congestion but are also responsible for the problems such as toxic waste, consumption of fuel, misfortunes etc. To an organization, congestion means worker productivity loss, delays in delivery, and greater costs. In order to resolve congestion
issues it is possible not only by physically creating new amenities and strategies but also by developing technology to transportation management systems is significant Vehicular research has the aim to enhance movement of flow of people and goods. VANETs have been receiving and acquiring a lot of focus due to the enormous variations in support they can offer. The VANET technology is mainly used to provide defense and amenity to the commuters and also to prevent them from unfortunate incidents.